Note: What is written below is all of what concerns Demons - be it the classification of them or even as they appear within religion, theology, mythology, folklore and much else besides. Please keep in mind, though, that what is seen below is not by me but by what I have come across while browsing the web. With that said, please enjoy. P.S. My apologies for it being so long, but I wished to include the more interesting facts in regards to Demons and the like.
Classification of Demons -
There have been various demonologies [or classifications of demons] in Christian demonology and classical occultism and/or Renaissance magic. Classification systems are based on the nature of the Demon, the sin with which they tempt people, the month in which their power was strongest, the saints that were their adversaries or other characteristics.
Classification by Domain -
The Testament of Solomon:
The Testament of Solomon is an Old Testament pseudepigraphical work, purportedly written by King Solomon, in which Solomon mostly describes particular demons whom he enslaved to help build the temple, the questions he put to them about their deeds and how they could be thwarted, and their answers, which provide a kind of self-help manual against demonic activity.The date is very dubious, though is considered the oldest work surviving particularly concerned with individual demons.
Psellus` Classification of Demons:
This is a classification of demons prepared by Michael Psellus in the 11th century and was an inspiration for the one Francesco Maria Guazzo prepared later. They are divided into Empyreal, Aerial, Subterranean, Lucifugi, Aqueous, Terrene.
Spina`s Classification of Demons:
Alfonso de Spina, in 1467, prepared a classification of demons based on several criteria:
-Demons of fate
-Incubi and succubi
-Wandering groups or armies of demons
-Cambions and other demons that are born from the union of a demon with a human being.
-Liar and mischievous demons
-Demons that attack the saints
-Demons that try to induce old women to attend Witches` Sabbaths
This classification is somewhat capricious and it is difficult to find a criterion for it. It seems that Spina was inspired by several legends and stories. The drudes belong to German folklore. Familiars, goblins, and other mischievous demons belong to the folklore of most European countries.
The belief in incubi and succubae (and their ability to procreate) seem to have inspired the seventh category, but it could also have been inspired in the Talmudic legend of demons having sexual intercourse with mortal women.
The visions of tempting demons that some early (and not too early) saints had, perhaps inspired the ninth category (e.g. the visions of Anthony the Great).
The idea of old women attending Sabbaths was common during the European Middle Age and Renaissance, and Spina mentioned it before the Malleus Maleficarum.
Binsfield`s Classification of Demons:
Peter Binsfeld prepared a classification of demons in 1589. His demon classification was based on the seven deadly sins, establishing that each one of the mentioned Seven princes of Hell tempted people by means of one of those sins.
Guazzo`s Classification of Demons:
Francesco Maria Guazzo prepared this classification of demons based on a previous work by Michael Psellus. It was published in his book Compendium Maleficarum in 1608.
-Demons of the superior layers of the air, which never establish a relationship with people.
-Demons of the inferior layers of the air, which are responsible for storms.
-Demons of Earth, which dwell in fields, caves and forests.
-Demons of water, which are female demons, and destroy aquatic animals.
-Demons of the underground part of the Earth, responsible of keeping hidden treasures, causing earthquakes, and causing the crumbling of houses.
-Demons of the night, which are black and evil. These demons avoid daylight.
Michaelis` Classification of Demons:
In 1613 Sebastien Michaelis wrote a book, Admirable History, which included a classification of demons as it was told to him by the demon Berith when he was exorcising a nun, according to the author. This classification is based on the Pseudo-Dionysian hierarchies, according to the sins the devil tempts one to commit, and includes the demons` adversaries (who suffered that temptation without falling).
Note that many demons` names are exclusively French or unknown in other catalogs. St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist are the two St. Johns to whom Michaelis refers. The other saints are cited only by their name without making clear, i.e., which Francis is (of Assisi?).
The first hierarchy includes angels that were or are Seraphim, Cherubim and Thrones.
-Beelzebub was a prince of the Seraphim, just below Lucifer. Beelzebub, along with Lucifer and Leviathan, were the first three angels to fall. He tempts men with pride and is opposed by St. Francis of Assisi.
-Leviathan was also a prince of the Seraphim who tempts people to give into heresy, and is opposed by Saint Peter.
-Asmodeus was also a prince of the Seraphim and reportedly continues to be one, burning with desire to tempt men into wantonness. He is opposed by St. John the Baptist.
-Berith was a prince of the Cherubim. He tempts men to commit homicide, and to be quarrelsome, contentious, and blasphemous. He is opposed by St. Barnabas.
-Astaroth was a prince of Thrones, who tempts men to be lazy and is opposed by St. Bartholomew.
-Verrine was also prince of Thrones, just below Astaroth. He tempts men with impatience and is opposed by St. Dominic.
-Gressil was the third prince of Thrones, who tempts men with impurity and is opposed by St. Bernard.
-Sonneillon was the fourth prince of Thrones, who tempts men to hate and is opposed by St. Stephen.
The second hierarchy includes Powers, Dominions, and Virtues.
-Carreau was a prince of Powers. He tempts men with hardness of heart and is opposed by St.s Vincent and Vincent Ferrer
-Carnivean was also a prince of Powers. He tempts men to obscenity and shamelessness, and is opposed by John the Evangelist.
-Oeillet was a prince of Dominions. He tempts men to break the vow of poverty and is opposed by St. Martin.
-Rosier was the second in the order of Dominions. He tempts men against sexual purity and is opposed by St. Basil.
-Belias was the prince of Virtues. He tempts men with arrogance and women to be vain, raise their children as wantons, and gossip during mass. He is opposed by St. Francis de Paul.
The third hierarchy includes Principalities, Archangels, and Angels.
-Olivier was the prince of the Archangels. He tempts men with cruelty and mercilessness toward the poor and is opposed by St. Lawrence.
-Iuvart was prince of Angels. At the time of Michaelis`s writing, Iuvart was believed to be in the body of a Sister Madeleine.
Barrett`s Classification of Demons:
Francis Barrett, in his book The Magus (1801), offered this classification of demons, making them princes of some evil attitude, person or thing:
-Pythius: liars and liar spirits
-Belial: vessels of iniquity and inventors of evil things
-Asmodeus: vile revenges
-Satan: witches and warlocks
-Merihem: pestilences and spirits that cause pestilences
-Abaddon: powers of war and devastation
-Astaroth: inquisitors and accusers
-Mammon: tempters and ensnarers
Classification by Month -
During the 16th century, it was believed that each demon had more strength to accomplish his mission during a special month of the year. In this way, he and his assistants` powers would work better during that month.
-Belial in January
-Leviathan in February
-Satan in March
-Belphegor in April
-Lucifer in May
-Berith in June
-Beelzebub in July
-Astaroth in August
-Thammuz in September
-Baal in October
-Asmodai in November
-Moloch in December
The classification of demons by month seems to have astrological implications more than religious ones.
Classification by Office -
Le Dragon Rouge (or Grand Grimoire):
Like many works of mystical nature, Le Dragon Rouge (or the Red Dragon) claims to come from Solomon and his priests and is said to be published in 1517 by Alibeck the Egyptian. However, it was most likely written in France in the 18th century.
The grimoire details the different hosts of hell and their powers, describing how to enter a pact with them to attain the magicians` goals. The demons of hell are classified by three different tiers from Generals to Officers.
Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, by Johann Weyer, is a grimoire that contains a list of demons and the appropriate hours and rituals to conjure them in the name of God, Jesus and the Holy Ghost (simpler than those cited by The Lesser Key of Solomon below).
This book was written around 1583, and lists sixty-eight demons. The demons Vassago, Seir, Dantalion and Andromalius are not listed in this book. Pseudomonarchia Daemonum does not attribute seals to the demons.
The Lesser Key of Solomon:
The Lesser Key of Solomon or Lemegeton Clavicula Salomonis is an anonymous 17th century grimoire, and one of the most popular books of demonology. The Lesser Key of Solomon contains detailed des-criptions of spirits and the conjurations needed to invoke and oblige them to do the will of the conjurer (referred to as the "exorcist"). It details the protective signs and rituals to be performed, the actions necessary to prevent the spirits from gaining control, the preparations prior to the invocations, and instructions on how to make the necessary instruments for the execution of these rituals.
The author of The Lesser Key of Solomon copied Pseudomonarchia Daemonum almost completely, but added demons` des-criptions, their seals and details.
The Ars Goetia:
Ars Goetia is the title of the first section of The Lesser Key of Solomon, containing des-criptions of the seventy-two demons that King Solomon is said to have evoked and confined in a bronze vessel sealed by magic symbols, and that he obliged to work for him.
The Ars Goetia assigns a rank and a title of nobility to each member of the infernal hierarchy, and gives the demons "signs they have to pay allegiance to", or seals.
The Dictionnaire Infernal (English: Infernal Dictionary) is a book on demonology, organised in hellish hierarchies. It was written by Jacques Auguste Simon Collin de Plancy and first published in 1818. There were several editions of the book, but perhaps the most famous is the edition of 1863, in which sixty-nine illustrations were added to the book. These illustrations are drawings which depict the des-criptions of the appearance of a number of demons. Many of these images were later used in S. L. MacGregor Mathers`s edition of The Lesser Key of Solomon though some of the images were removed.
The book was first published in 1818 and then divided into two volumes, with six reprints and many changes between 1818 and 1863. This book attempts to provide an account of all the knowledge concerning superstitions and demonology.
The List of Theological Demons -
This is not a list of names of demons, although some are listed by more than one name.
Each entry names a demon and gives a source in parentheses.
Demonology: Ayyavazhi, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish
Eschatology: Islamic eschatology
Folklore: Bulgarian, Christian, German, Jewish
Mythology: Akkadian, Babylonian, Buddhist, Chaldean, Christian, Egyptian, Etruscan, Finnish, Greek, Guanche, Hindu, Indonesia, Irish, Japanese, Mapuche, Moabite, Native American mythology,[clarification needed] Persian, Phoenician, Slavic, Semitic, Sumerian, Gnosticism, Hinduism, Thelema, Zoroastrianism, nautical folklore, Sanskrit, Testament of Solomon
-Aamon or Amon (Christian demonology)
-Abaddon/Apollyon (Christian demonology)
-Abalam (Christian demonology)
-Abezethibou (Testament of Solomon)
-Abyzou (Jewish mythology)
-Adramelech (Assyrian mythology, Christian demonology)
-Agaliarept (Jewish mythology)
-Agrat Bat Mahlat (Jewish demonology)
-Agares (Christian demonology)
-Agiel (Jewish mythology)
-Ahriman/Angra Mainyu (Zoroastrianism)
-Aim/Haborym (Christian demonology)
-Aka Manah/Akem Manah/Akoman/Akvan (Zoroastrianism)
-Ala (Slavic mythology)
-Alal (Chaldean mythology)
-Alastor (Christian demonology)
-Alloces/Allocer (Christian demonology)
-Allu (Akkadian mythology)
-Amaymon (Christian demonology)
-Amdusias (Christian demonology)
-Ammut (Egyptian mythology)
-Amon (Christian demonology)
-Amy (Christian demonology)
-Anamalech (Assyrian mythology)
-Andhaka (Hindu mythology)
-Andras (Christian demonology)
-Andrealphus (Christian demonology)
-Andromalius (Christian demonology)
-Antichrist (Christian demonology)
-Anzu (Sumerian mythology)
-Apep (a.k.a. Apophis) (Egyptian mythology)
-Armaros (Jewish demonology)
-Asag (Sumerian demonology)
-Asakku (Babylonian mythology)
-Asb`el (Jewish mythology)
-Asmodai/Asmodeus (Jewish folklore and Christian mythology)
-Astaroth (Christian demonology)
-Asura (Hindu mythology)
-Azazel / Azaz`el (Jewish demonology)
-Azi Dahaka/Dahak (Zoroastrianism)
-Baal/Bael (Christian demonology)
-Balam (Christian demonology)
-Balberith (Jewish demonology)
-Bali Raj (Hindu mythology)
-Banshee (Irish mythology)
-Baphomet (Christian folklore)
-Barbas (Christian demonology)
-Barbatos (Christian demonology)
-Bathin/Mathim/Bathym/Marthim (Christian demonology)
-Beball (Christian demonology)
-Beelzebub (Jewish demonology, Christian demonology)
-Behemoth (Jewish demonology)
-Belial (Jewish demonology, Christian demonology)
-Beleth (Christian demonology)
-Belphegor (Christian demonology)
-Berith/Beherit (Phoenician mythology, Christian demonology)
-Bies (Slavic mythology)
-Bifrons (Christian demonology)
-Boruta (Slavic mythology)
-Botis (Christian demonology)
-Buer (Christian demonology)
-Bukavac (Slavic mythology)
-Bune (Christian mythology)
-Caim/Camio (Christian demonology)
-Carabia (Christian demonology)
-Charun (Etruscan mythology)
-Chemosh (Moabite mythology)
-Cimejes/Kimaris/Cimeies (Christian demonology)
-Corson (Christian demonology)
-Crocell/Procell (Christian demonology)
-Culsu (Etruscan mythology)
-Daeva (Zoroastrianism demonology)
-Dagon (Semitic mythology)
-Dantalion (Christian demonology)
-Danjal (Jewish mythology)
-Dasa (Hindu mythology)
-Davy Jones (nautical folklore)
-Decarabia (Christian demonology)
-Demogorgon (Christian demonology)
-Devil (Christian demonology)
-Div-e Sepid (Persian mythology)
-Drekavac (Slavic mythology)
-Dzoavits (Native American mythology)
-Eligos (Christian demonology)
-Eisheth (Jewish demonology)
-Empusa (Greek mythology)
-Euryale (Greek mythology)
-Eurynomos (Greek mythology)
-Eblis (Islamic demonology)
-Familiars (Christian demonology)
-Focalor (Christian demonology)
-Foras/Forcas/Forras/ (Christian demonology)
-Forneus (Christian demonology)
-Furcas/Forcas (Christian demonology)
-Furfur (Christian demonology)
-Gaap (Christian demonology)
-Gader`el (Jewish demonology)
-Gaki (Japanese mythology)
-Gamigin (Christian demonology)
-Gello (Greek mythology, Christian mythology)
-Glasya-Labolas/Caacrinolaas/Caassimolar/Classyalabolas/Glassia-labolis (Christian demonology)
-Gorgon (Greek mythology)
-Gremory/Gomory (Christian demonology)
-Grigori (Jewish demonology)
-Gualichu (Mapuche mythology)
-Guayota (Guanche mythology)
-Gusion/Gusoin/Gusoyn (Christian demonology)
-Haagenti (Christian demonology)
-Halphas/Malthus (Christian demonology)
-Harpy (Greek mythology)
-Haures/Flauros/Flavros/Hauras/Havres (Christian demonology)
-Humbaba (Sumerian mythology, Akkadian mythology)
-Ifrit (Islamic mythology)
-Imp (Christian demonology, Germanic folklore)
-Incubus (Christian demonology, Chaldean mythology, Jewish folklore)
-Ipos/Ipes (Christian demonology)
-Iblis (Islamic demonology)(Satan)
-Jinn (Islamic demonology)
-Jikininki (Japanese mythology)
-Kasadya (Jewish demonology)
-Kokb`ael (Jewish demonology)
-Kali (Hindu mythology)
-Kroni (Ayyavazhi demonology)
-Labal (Christian demonology)
-Labasu (Babylonian mythology)
-Lady Midday (Slavic mythology)
-Lamashtu (Sumerian mythology)
-Lamia (Bulgarian folklore, Christian demonology and Greek mythology)
-Latiangle (Christian demonology)
-Legion (Christian demonology)
-Lechies (Slavic mythology)
-Leyak (Indonesian mythology)
-Lempo (Finnish mythology)
-Leraje/Leraie (Christian demonology)
-Leviathan (Jewish demonology, Christian demonology)
-Lili/Lilin/Lilim (Jewish demonology)
-Lilith (Sumerian mythology, Akkadian mythology, Jewish folklore)
-Lucifer (Christian demonology)
-Lucifuge Rofocale (Christian demonology)
-Malphas (Christian demonology)
-Mammon (Christian demonology)
-Mara (Buddhist mythology)
-Marax/Morax/Foraii (Christian demonology)
-Marbas (Christian demonology)
-Marchosias (Christian demonology)
-Masih ad-Dajjal/Ad-Dajjal/Dajjal (Islamic eschatology)
-Mastema (Jewish demonology)
-Medusa (Greek mythology)
-Melchiresa / Melki-resha (Jewish mythology)
-Mephistopheles (Christian folklore, German folklore)
-Merihem (Christian demonology)
-Moloch (Christian demonology)
-Murmur (Christian demonology)
-Naamah (demon) (Jewish demonology)
-Naberius/Cerbere (Christian demonology)
-Naberus (Christian demonology)
-Naphula (Christian demonology)
-Ninurta (Sumerian mythology, Akkadian mythology)
-Namtar (Sumerian mythology
-Onoskelis (Testament of Solomon)
-Oray (Christian demonology)
-Orias (Christian demonology)
-Oriax (Christian demonology)
-Ornias (Testament of Solomon)
-Orobas (Christian demonology)
-Orobos (Christian demonology)
-Ose (Christian demonology)
-Paimon (Christian demonology)
-Paimonia (Christian demonology)
-Paymon (Christian demonology)
-Pazuzu (Akkadian mythology, Sumerian mythology)
-Phenex (Christian demonology)
-Pithius (Christian demonology)
-Pruflas (Christian demonology)
-Pruslas (Christian demonology)
-Puloman (Hindu demonology)
-Purson/Curson (Christian demonology)
-Rahab (Jewish folklore)
-Raim (Christian demonology)
-Raum (Christian demonology)
-Ronove (Christian demonology)
-Ronwe (Christian demonology)
-Rusalka (Slavic mythology)
-[[Ryogoloue] Kitsune Goddess]
-Sabnock (Christian demonology)
-Saleos (Christian demonology)
-Samael (Jewish demonology)
-Satan (Jewish demonology, Christian demonology, Islamic demonology)
-Scox (Christian demonology)
-Seir (Christian demonology)
-Semyaz (Jewish demonology)
-Serguthy (Haitian demonology)
-Shax/Chax (Christian demonology)
-Shedim (Jewish folklore)
-Sidragasum (Christian demonology)
-Sitri (Christian demonology)
-Sthenno (Greek mythology)
-Stolas (Christian demonology)
-Succubus (Sumerian mythology, Akkadian mythology, Jewish folklore, Christian demonology)
-Surgat (Christian demonology)
Tannin (Jewish demonology)
-Ukobach (Christian demonology)
-Uvall (Christian demonology)
-Valac (Christian demonology)
-Valefar/Malaphar/Malephar (Christian demonology)
-Vapula (Christian demonology)
-Vassago (Christian demonology)
-Vepar (Christian demonology)
-Vephar (Christian demonology)
-Vine (Christian demonology)
-Xaphan (Christian demonology)
-Zagan (Christian demonology)
-Zepar (Christian demonology)
-Ziminiar (Christian demonology)
**If you would like more information on Demons, please go here: Demonology**